Crude oil is separated into fractions (distillates) in fractional distillation units.
At subsequent stages, the distillates are further processed in:
- Cracking unit
- Alkylation unit
- Reforming unit
- Isomerisation unit
- Diesel fuel hydrodesulfurisation unit
- Hydrocracking unit
- Petroleum tar hydrodesulfurisation unit
where the following processes occur: hydrogenation, conversion of nitrogen and oxygen compounds, cracking of paraffin, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons with side chains into hydrocarbons having lower molecular mass, conversion of low-octane C5-C6 aliphatic hydrocarbons into higher-octane isomers, dearomatisation, and demetallisation.
Also, sulfur and benzene are removed to achieve concentration levels ensuring the components meet the required quality standards. The fuel components do not contain lead.
Liquid fuels are made by blending selected components (including biocomponents in the case of some fuel types) and adding boosters and additives according to a blending formula.